FINNISH DEFENCE FORCES RANKS
ČINOVI FINSKIH ODBRAMBENIH SNAGA
 
 
 
 
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ARMY AND AIR FORCE RANKS    ČINOVI KOPNENE VOJSKE I AVIJACIJE

 

OFFICERS    OFICIRI

 

GENERAL    GENERAL  Kenraali

 

      General je najviši oficirski čin u Finskoj. Usporediv je sa činom u NATO ljestvici kao OF-9. U mirnodopskom vremenu čin generala je rezerviran za komandnata Finskih odbrambenih snaga. Ponekad se uz čin dodaje i grana u kojoj služi. Do sada Finska je imala sedamnaest Generala pješadije (jalkaväenkenraali), nekoliko Generala elitne pješadije (jääkärikenraali), dva Generala konjice (ratsuväenkenraali) te jednog Generala artiljerije (tykistönkenraali). Maršal Mannerheim je bio jedan od dvojice konjičkih generala prije nego je unaprijeđen u čin Maršala.

     

      General, Finnish: kenraali is the highest officer's rank in Finland. Finnish Defence Forces rank of keneraali is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-9. In peacetime the rank of Full General is reserved for the Commander of Finnish Defence Forces. Sometimes a General's branch of service is indicated in the rank. So far Finland has had seventeen of jalkaväenkenraali (General of Infantry), a few of jääkärikenraali (Jägergeneral), two of ratsuväenkenraali (General of Cavalry) and one tykistönkenraali (General of Artillery). Marshal Mannerheim himself was the other one of the two Generals of Cavalry before his promotion toField Marshal.

     

LIEUTENANT GENERAL    GENERAL PUKOVNIK    Kenraaliluutnantti

 

      General pukovnik (kenraaliluutnantti) je čin iznad general majora a ispod generala. Ovaj čin obično je šef zajedničkog štaba Komande oružanih snaga ili komandant armije. Po NATO klasifikaciji činova ovaj je čin u rangu OF-8.

     

      Generallöjtnant is an officer's rank immediately above Generalmajor and below General. The Director, Joint Staff of Armed Forces Headquarters, the Director of Operations and the Director of Production hold this rank. Finish Defence Forces rank of Kenraaliluutnantti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-8. A kenraaliluutnantti is usually a commander of army or chief of staff of Finnish Defence Forces.

     

MAJOR GENERAL    GENERAL MAJOR    Kenraalimajuri

 

      General major (kenraalimajuri) je čin iznad brigadnog generala a ispod general pukovnika. Ovaj čin obično je šef zajedničkog štaba Komande oružanih snaga ili komandant armije. Po NATO klasifikaciji činova ovaj je čin u rangu OF-7. General major komandira korpusom ili je armijski šef štaba. I komandant Finske avijacije nosi čin general majora. Uz to postoji i nekoliko specijalnih zadataka koje obavljaju general majori ili viši činovi.

     

      Generalmajor is an officer's rank immediately above Brigadegeneral and below Generallöjtnant. Finish Defence Force rank of Kenraalimajuri is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-7. In Finland a kenraalimajuri typically commands a corps or army chief of staff. The commander of Finnish Air Force is a kenraalimajuri. There are also several special tasks for kenraalimajuri or senior.

     

BRIGADIER GENERAL    BRIGADNI GENERAL    Prikaatikenraali

 

     Brigadni general (prikaatikenraali) je čin iznad pukovničkog a ispod general majora. Po NATO klasifikaciji činova ovaj je čin u rangu OF-8. Brigadni general može služiti kao komandant brigade ili kao stariji administrativni ili štabni oficir.

      Potreba za činom između general majora i pukovnika se pojavila u međunarodnim misijama. Drugdje u svijetu neke su dužnosti povjeravane generalskom činu. General major bi bio previsoki čin za te zadatke pa je 1994.godine uveden čin brigadnog generala (prikaatikenraali) specijalno za te slučajeve. Čin je imao srebrenog lava do kraja 1995.godine, kada je zamjenjen zlatnim lavom, a ostali generalskim činovima je dodan po jedan zlatni lav. Tako je general major umjesto do tadašnjeg jednog dobio dva lava.

     

      Brigadgeneral is an officer's rank immediately above Överste and below Generalmajor. Finish Defence Forces rank of Prikaatinkenraali is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-6. A prikaatikenraali can serve as a commander of a brigade or in senior administrative, staff or planning tasks.

      The need for a new rank between kenraalimajuri and eversti came among international missions. Elsewhere in the world some of the duties were assigned to a general officer. Kenraalimajuri would have been too high-ranking for such missions, so in 1994 a rank of prikaatinkenraali was created specifically for high-ranking officers serving abroad. Prikaatinkenraali used to have a one silver lion as an insignia of rank, but in October 1995 the rank's name was changed to prikaatikenraali, the lion was changed to golden and other generals were given one additional lion. Therefore kenraalimajuri has now two lions instead of the previous one.

     

COLONEL    PUKOVNIK    Eversti

 

      Pukovnik je čin iznad potpukovničkog i ispod brigadnog generala. Everest doslovno znači „najviši“ i originalno je bio čin komandanta regimente. U Finskoj i brigadama komandiraju nosioci ovog čina. To je najviši čin ispod generalskih. Po NATO klasifikaciji činova ovaj je čin u rangu OF-5. U većini velikih vojnih jedinica, kao npr. brigadama za obuku, zapovjeda pukovnik. Unapređenje u čin pukovnika zahtjeva završeno školovanje za generalštabne oficire.

     
   
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      Everesti is an officer rank immediately above Lieutnant Colonel (Everstiluutnantti) and below Brigadier General. It literally means "the highest" and has originally been a rank for regiment commanders. In Finland, brigades are also commanded by holders of this rank. It is the highest rank below general offciers. Finish Defence Forces rank of Eversti is comparable to Finish Defence Forces rank as OF-5. In most large military installations such as training brigades, the commander is a Colonel, and several officers of the General Staff, such as inspectors of services, are also Colonels. Promotion to colonel requires graduation from a general staff officer course (80 study credits).

     

LIEUTENANT COLONEL    POTPUKOVNIK    Everstiluutnantti

 

      Potpukovnik (Finski: Everstiluutnantti, Švedski: Överstelöjtnant) je oficirski čin neposredno iznad majora (Majuri) a ispod pukovnika (Eversti). Po NATO klasifikaciji činova ovaj je čin u rangu OF-4. U mirnodopskim uvjetima potpukovnik je komandant bataljona ili šef štaba regimente ili brigade. Svega nekoliko rezervista nosi ovaj čin i za to je bilo potrebno aktivno učešće u nacionalnoj odbrani i zahtjevana ratna pozicija.

     
 
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      Everstiluutnantti (Överstelöjtnant inSwedish) is an officer's rank immediately above Major(Majuri) and just below Eversti (Överste). Finnish Defence Forces rank of Everstiluutnantti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-4. During peacetime, an everstiluutnantti is the commander of a battalion or a chief of staff for a regiment or brigade. The rank requires completion of a staff officer course. Only a few reservists have obtained the rank of everstiluutnantti. It requires active participation in national defence and a demanding wartime position.

     

MAJOR    MAJOR    Majuri

 

      Major (majuri) je oficirski čin iznad kapetana, a ispod potpukovnika. Ovaj je finski čin po NATO klasifikaciji činova u rangu OF-3. U mirnodopsko vrijeme major je ili član štaba ili komandira bataljonom. Da bi se dobio ovaj čin potrebno je završiti školu za starije štabne oficire. I rezervisti mogu postati majori iako je to prilično rijetko jer moraju biti aktivni učesnici u narodnoj odbrani.

     
 
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      Major (Majuri in Finnish) is a military officer's rank ranking above Captain and below Lieutenant Collonel. Finnish Defence Forces rank of Majuri is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-3. During peacetime, a majuri is a staff officer or battalion commander. The rank requires the completion of a senior staff officer course. It is also possible for reservists to obtain the reserve rank of majuri. This is however, quite rare and requires active participation in national defence.

     

CAPTAIN    KAPETAN    Kapteeni

 

      Kapetan, satnik (Kapteeni) od latinske riječi capitaneus što znači glavni čovjek ili šef je čin za profesionalne i vojnike na odsluženju vojnog roka. U Kopnenoj vojsci je viši od starijeg poručnika (Yliluutnantti), a ispod majora. Po NATO strukturi nosi naziv OF-2. U mirnodopsko vrijeme komandira četom. (I major može imati ulogu komandira čete, ali rijetko, većinom rade u nekom štabu). Da bi postao kapetan porebno je završiti dodatnu obuku na prije toga završenu vojnu akademiju. Moguće je da i rezervisti steknu ovaj čin.

     
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AIR FORCE  EPAULETTE JACKET AIR FORCE EPAULETTE SHIRT  
Avijacija  epoleta jakna Avijacija epoleta košulja  
     

      Kapten (Kapteeni) (From the Latin word capitaneus meaning head man or chief) is a professional and conscripted military rank in Finland, immediately Yliluutnantti and just below Major in the Army ranks. Rank of Kapteeni is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-2. In peacetime training, a kapteeni is the commander of a company. (Majors can also be in this role, but usually majors work in command staff rather than in individual companies.) The rank requires additional training to obtain, in addition to the preexisting military university degree. It is also possible for reservists to obtain the reserve rank of kapteeni.

     

1st LIEUTENANT    STARIJI PORUČNIK    Yliluutnantti

 

      Stariji poručnik (finski: yliluutnantti, njemački: Oberleutnant, ruski: старший лейтенант, starshy leytenant Švedski: premiärlöjtnant) je vojni čin između poručnika i kapetana. Ponekad ga se oslovljava i sa prvi poručnik. Po NATO-u je to OF-1a (i ako taj čin ne postoji u NATO klasifikaciji činova). Koriste ga sva tri roda finskih OS, kao i  Finska granična straža. Uobičajeno je na dužnosti zamjenika komandira čete. Oficiri koji završe Nacionalni odbrambeni koledž kao magistri nauka, se obično nakon 4 godine službe vraćaju na daljnje dvogodišnje školovanje te budu postavljeni na zahtjevnije dužnosti. Yliluutnantti je najviši čin koji su mogli dosegnuti polaznici bivše više vojne škole (Maanpuolustusopisto).

     
 
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      Senior lieutenant (Finnish: yliluutnantti, German: Oberleutnant, Russian: старший лейтенант, starshy leytenant Swedish: premiärlöjtnant) is a military grade between a lieutenant and a captain. Sometimes a senior lieutenant is called a first lieutenant. The rank is equivalent to the NATO grade of OF-1a (although it is not a part of the NATO system). Rank is used in the Finnish Defence Forces (army, navy and air force) and the Finnish Border Guard. The prescribed duty is a company vice-commander. Officers who have graduated as Bachelors of Military Science from the National Defence College with the rank of luutnantti usually re-enter the college after four years' tour of duty. After a study of two additional years, they are promoted yliluutnantti and return to more challenging duties. Yliluutnantti is also the highest rank available to those educated in the now-decommissioned school Maanpuolustusopisto (comparable to a military junior college).

     

LIEUTENANT    PORUČNIK    Luutnantti

 

      Poručnik u Finskim odbrambenim snagama je usporediv po NATO činovima sa onim OF-1. Kako je finska vojska dvojezična čin je po švedskom löjtnant a finski luutnantti. Da bi postao poručnik kandidat mora odslužiti godinu dana osnovne vojne obuke kao oficir-kadet i uspješno završiti trogodišnje školovanje kao magistar vojnih nauka na Nacionalnom odbrambenom učilištu. Nakon 3-4 godine službe i dodatnog školovanja mogu biti promaknuti u čin yliluutnantti/premiärlöjtnant. Rezervisti takođe mogu postati poručnici u rezervi nakon specifičnog perioda uspješne obuke za rezervne oficire.

     
 
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      Luutnantti in Finnish Defence Forces is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-1. The Finnish army is bilingual; the rank is known in Swedish as löjtnant and Finnish as luutnantti. One year of conscript training as officer cadet and three-year degree of Bachelor of Military Science (Finnish: sotatieteiden kandidaatti) at National Defence University. After 3-4 years and further studies, they can be promoted to yliluutnantti/premiärlöjtnant. Reservists may be promoted to lieutenants after a specified period of successful reservist training.

     

2nd LIEUTENANT    MLAĐI PORUČNIK    Wänrikki

 

      Tipično zanimanje profesionalnih mlađih poručnika (finski: vänrikki, švedski: Fänrik, obadvoje nastalo od njemačke riječi Fahnrich) je obuka novih vojnika. Čin se koristi u aktivnoj službi za rezervne oficire koji ostaju u službi u 6 do 12 mjeseci dodatnom terminu te služe kao sopimussotilas. Dodatno, to je najniži rezervni oficirski čin. Usporediv po NATO činovima sa onim OF-1.

      Regruti / novaci: ovaj je čin uglavnom namjenjen rezervnim oficirima. Budući ne profesionalni oficiri se biraju između svih regruta. Nakon osnovone dvomjesečene obuke dio regruta se bira za podoficirska zvanja. Nakon dvomjesečne podoficirske obuke, iz te baze se biraju oni za oficirsku obuku. Tro i po mjesečna obuka se obično vrši u Školi za rezervne oficire, nakon koje se polaznici unaprijeđuju u oficire-kadete (upseerikokelas). Preostalih pet i pol mjeseci služe kao komandiri vodova i ujedno vrše obuku regruta. Napokon, oni koji sve završe uspkešno budu unaprijeđeni u čin vänrikki. Ukoliko bi došlo do rata, skoro sva niža oficirska mjesta bi popunili rezervisti, pogotovo ona komandira vodova i četa.   

      Profesionalni oficiri, na Nacionalnom odbrambenom učilištu počinju sa ovim činom. Ukoliko nisu prošli obuku za rezervne oficire čin obično stječu tokom studija. Napokon, nakon uspješno završenih studija svi budu unaprijeđeni u čin poručnika (luutnantti).

     
   
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      A typical assignment for a professional vänrikki (Swedish: Fänrik) both from the German Fahnrich is as junior instructor of recruits. The rank is used in active service by reserve officers who remain in service as for 6-to-12-months-long additional term to serve as sopimussotilas. In addition, it is the lowest reserve officer rank. Finnish Defence Forces rank of Vänrikki is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-1.

      Conscript officer - The rank has been mainly a reserve rank. The future conscript officers are selected from the whole pool of conscripts. After a basic training of two months, a portion of  the conscripts are selected for NCO training. After 2 months of NCO training, the most suitable are selected for reserve officer training and promoted to officer students. The 3½-month-long reserve officers training usually takes place in the Reserve Officers School, and afterwards, the candidates are promoted to officer cadets (upseerikokelas). They serve the remaining 5½ months of their conscription practicing as platoon commanders as well as training other conscripts. Finally, successful officer cadets are discharged with the rank of vänrikki. If mobilization is effected, officers in the reserve fill most junior officer duties of the war-time Finnish army. Especially, most platoon and company commander positions and junior staff officer duties are filled with reservists.

      Professional officer The National Defence University accepts both reserve officers and reserve NCOs. Those cadets who did not receive reserve officer training during their conscription are usually promoted to the personal rank of vänrikki during their studies. However, upon graduation, professional officers are promoted to luutnantti.

     

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS    PODOFICIRI

 

SERGEANT MAJOR    STARIJI NAREDNIK    Sotilasmestri

 
     
 
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MASTER SERGEANT     GLAVNI NAREDNIK    Ylivääpeli

 
     
   
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SERGEANT 1st CLASS     NAREDNIK 1. KLASE   Vääpeli

 
     
   
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STAFF SERGEANT     ŠTABNI NAREDNIK    Ylikersantti

 
     
   
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SERGEANT     NAREDNIK    Kersantti

 

      Narednik (Kersantti) je finski vojni čin iznad kaplara, a ispod štabnog narednika (Ylikersantti). Profesionalni podoficiri obično počinju sa činom narednika. U pješadiji služe kao komandiri odjeljenja (6-8 ljudi), zamjenici komandira voda (do 30 ljudi) a rjeđe čak i kao komandiri voda, a na nivou čete kao Glavni četni narednik.

      U finskoj vojsci regruti (ročnici) prvo prolaze dvomjesečnu osnovnu obuku gdje se oko 30% njih selektira za niži podoficirsku obuku (aliupseerikoulu ili AUK), koja traje četiri mjeseca. Nakon završetka promovirani su u kaplare (alikersantti) i raspoređeni po četama na šest mjeseci kao vođe odjeljenja. Uobičajeno je da se najbolji kaplar promovira u narednika nekoliko tjedana prije otpusta iz vojske. U međuvremenu služe kao zamjenici komandira voda i kao komandiri odjeljenja. Čin se može zaslužiti i u rezervi (sve do čina majora/potpukovnika). Profesionalni podoficiri nose isti čin, samo se na oznaci uz čin nalazi i mali mač.

     
 
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      Kersantti is a Finnish military rank above alikersantti and below Ylikersantti. Contracted NCOs usually start from sergeant, in infantry platoons sergeants may serve as squad leaders (6-8 men), deputy platoon commanders (~30 men) or rarely even a platoon commanders, or at company level as Company Sergeant Majors.

      In the Finnish army, conscripts are first trained for 2 months in basic training and about 30% are selected for junior NCO training (aliupseerikoulu or AUK), which lasts 4 months. Upon completion, they are promoted to alikersantti and posted to companies for 6 months as squad leaders. Usually, the best-performing alikersantti in a platoon is promoted to kersantti a few weeks before discharge, and in meantime acts as a deputy platoon commander as well as a squad leader. Like any other rank up to Major/Lieutenant Commander, the rank of sergeant can be achieved in reserve if certain requirements are met. Salaried NCOs can also hold the rank. In this case, a small sword is added to the insignia.

     

CORPORAL     KAPLAR    Alikersantti

 
     
   
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PRIVATE 1st CLASS     VOJNIK 1. KLASE    Korpraali

 
     
   
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PRIVATE     VOJNIK    Sotamies

 
     
     

NAVY RANKS    MORNARIČKI ČINOVI

 
     
     
     
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